Forming a 501(c)(3) Booster Club

Forming a Booster ClubSection 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code allows for tax exemption for organizations organized and operated to foster national or international amateur sports competition so long as no part of the net earnings inure to the benefit of any private shareholder or individual. In cases of athletic or other types of parent-run and organized booster clubs, it is the last part of this provision that can prove problematic.

Avoiding Private Inurement.  A parent-run booster club must be organized so that it benefits the entire class of athletes or participants and does not benefit certain individuals over others. One way to ensure that this private benefit does not occur is to use the money raised from fundraising events in a manner that benefits the club as a whole.

Cooperative Fundraising. Booster clubs must take care to avoid adopting the “work and pay or don’t play” method of funding their activities. In this method, there is some sort of point system used where participants are given credits for the amount of time they or their parents spend fundraising; the more fundraising activities you participate in, the more funding you will receive. The IRS views this method as a private benefit and will not grant tax-exempt status to organizations that use it. However, there are certain cases where cooperative fundraising will not preclude a booster club receiving tax-exempt status. Where cooperative fundraising is allowed, it must only account for a small number of the organization’s activities. Additionally, funds may not be given directly to participants, but rather must be applied directly towards the cost of participation. If the participant decides not to participate in the activity for which funds are raised, the funds must revert to a general fund for the use of all participants.

Private Facility Inurement. In the case of booster clubs that conduct their activities at a private facility, the organization must take precautions regarding any private benefit flowing from the organization to the for-profit facility. The organization must ensure that the owners of the private facility do not exercise influence over the operations of the booster club. If this occurs, the IRS may take the position that the booster club serves the purpose of promoting private business interests. Also, if the organization purchases any equipment for use at the private facility in which their sponsored teams train, if more than insubstantial in nature, the IRS is likely to conclude that a substantial purpose of the organization is supporting a commercial enterprise.

Organizations that support public school programs, however, are subject to an element of public control in that participants are selected based on the objective and nondiscriminatory criteria set by the schools and the funds raised are turned over to the public facility which then exercises discretion over expenditures to benefit all participants or, if the booster club maintains control over the funds, they are limited in the type of expenditures they may make. This public control often negates the elements of private benefit and inurement that can occur in the private arena.

Conclusion. In order to ensure that a booster club is operated exclusively for charitable purposes, it should follow a few basic guidelines: (1) participants must be selected based on objective and nondiscriminatory criteria; (2) all selected participants must be allowed to participate in club activities regardless of parent participation in fundraising; (3) cooperative fundraising must only account for a small amount of the clubs activities and students must not exercise control over funds raised for their benefit; and (4) when the club uses a for-profit facility, the clubs activities must not support the for-profit organization.

Ellis Carter is a nonprofit lawyer with Caritas Law Group, PC. To contact Ellis, call 602-456-0071 or email us at

55 thoughts on “Forming a 501(c)(3) Booster Club

  1. I would like to know what the time frame for a reply from this blog usually runs? I asked a question before Christmas and I am still waiting. Thanks.

  2. I was just told that it is not state law to divide all fund raising profits equally amongst participating students. Is that true?

  3. Can you have a booster fee, without it being a membership? We are a booster club who charges a fee each season per family to help offset operating costs of auctions and parties for the kids throughout the year. Or, is it a requirement to have parents who pay the fee to be members of the booster club? We currently have a board, and chairpersons for different committees who have volunteered to help.

  4. I have a question. I am a parent of a cheer allstar athlete, which has paid $1200 for her booster club and the booster club president since then has been fired from the gym which the booster club was set up for. The booster club is the non profit with a president name M and the gym was a non profit with the name of A. which are not the same people. The booster club has not bylaws on record for the state of SC. Since M has been fired from the gym A she has relocated and opened her own gym with a similar name to gym A we will call her new gym, gym AA. M has taken the funds with her to the new location of gym AA and is using the funds there. M is refusing to refund any payments to any of the gym members of gym A that contributed to the booster club ran solely by M. The parents were not aware that the booster club set up by M was solely in her name and siugned as the VP and Treasurer. She also set up bank account with her name solely. Should M be able to take the funds from the Booster club set up for gym A booster club and be able to use for her at her new gym gym AA for anything?
    Please advise. Thank you.

  5. I am confused; can a school booster club “force” membership and require dues of those members? I don’t see how a “participation agreement” is much different. In my experience, booster clubs require a lot of work, “forced donations,” and forced fund-raisers. Locally, if you don’t provide donations and “do” fund-raisers you are expected to compensate the booster for what they ‘lost’ (benefits not gained from your contribution). They use arm-twisting techniques to try to get what are described as “slacker” parents to participate, but that does not seem to be in the spirit of a charitable organization. The child may get the benefit of what is corporately given to participants, and these parents are highly pressured to do their part though some are unable and others are disinterested. Withholding any benefit from a student whose parent does not participate/join does not seem to be consistent with #2 in the original article conclusions, “all selected participants must be allowed to participate in club activities regardless of parent participation in fundraising,” but there seem to be some associated costs to this.. While they may not have minded the student participating, they had no idea what cost and expectations of a booster. In this pay-to-play world, these added expectations make it cost-prohibitive to many.

  6. I am part of a band booster organization that hasn’t been able to collect dues from several students over several years. Since we are a non-profit, how can we legally collect payment in order to fund our program? As you know many local high schools won’t let students graduate without having their fees paid, but we have been told we don’t have any legal recourse. We would never exclude a child from participating in band, but isn’t there a way to collect something? We are already $12K in arrears.

  7. Our gymnastics parent association gives our for profit gym a $5,000 gift for equipment and $20,000 a year for gym usage. Is this legal?

  8. Dance team looking to become 501c3 ( have ein#) my question …we would be fundraising for all money needed for yearly expenses. All money taken in will go right back out for needed items, trips how does a formed booster club or parent assoc. file taxes etc when they won’t have money to follow so?? What’s the point?? There are only 20 girls on team. Not to mention most high school booster clubs board members etc change out every two years or so!?!? So who in fact would even file taxes etc?? This is what is confusing us moms . We know in order to do certain fundraising events we need to be 501c3 but in the end who will deal with irs. Filing?

  9. Our athletic booster club is 501c3. Our teams fundraise for extra equipment and put that money into an internal account with the school district. Unfortunately, the school has recently depleted a portion of those funds to offset its own expenses leaving the coaches frustrated. Our Booster club, which is entirely volunteer, is proposing to hold the teams fundraising funds as encumbered funds but for a one time fee. We are thinking 10% of the amount deposited – to offset the extra time necessary to track the accounts, write checks, etc. The funds would either go into the general fund or it has been discussed to be applied to our scholarship fund. My gut is telling my this is a form of extortion and cautioning the board to not implement this until a legal definition is obtained. Guidance please!

  10. I teach private voice for a high school booster club and it is 501c3. If they charge me to lease a teaching studio and I am paid $20 per lesson, but I have to pay the booster club back $3.50 per lesson is that legal? Also do they need to file a tax form or a 1099 or something like that for me if I make over $600 a year? Thank you,

  11. We are a 501c3 gymnastics booster club. We are affiliated with a for-profit gym. Can we pay for the competitive team coaches to get training even though they are not employees of our booster club? They are employees of the for-profit gym.

  12. I am a part of a soccer team that is planning ok traveling to a tournament. We and a few other parents are not going and never committed to it. But they are asking for us to fundraise and help pay out of pa youth of pocket for those that are going. I don’t want to fundraise or pay. Can they force this?

  13. My wife is a treasurer for a high school band parents organization that is a 501c3. there has been questions sense she was appointed about the manor in which the organizations funds are handled. All funds are placed into a general fund, but individual student accounts are maintained as to how much each student raised during fund raisers. This was done so that individual students would be able to tell how much of their yearly fees have been offset through their participation. The amount above this is used to pay for band trips and activities. When she became treasurer we reviewed the books and how budgeting was handled. This lead to the discovery that during periods where little or no fund raising occurred money stated for individual accounts was used from the general account to cover expenses of the band and once fund raising activities resumed the general account would be replenished and individual accounts were also covered because the total amount in the bank was sufficient to cover those account and continued activities. this practice is now being questioned by parents and that money for individual accounts can not be used to cover general activities of the band. We are wondering what actions we should take and how to avoid any wrong doing on any and all participants.

  14. I’m involved with a 501c3 organization that was created to provide music scholarships to high school students. It also provided a means to fundraise for school music trips. It was created before the changes from the IRS regarding IFAs. I’m seeking guidance on how to legally reallocate all of the existing IFAs. OR since small scale cooperative fundraising is permitted, can we simply leave existing IFA balances in place and then establish new fundraising guidelines moving forward? i.e. moving from 10 cooperative fundraisers a year to just 1 or 2 with the remaining fundraisers to be applied to the entire group. Can you help me get a grasp on what the IRS would consider an “insubstantial amount” for cooperative fundraising in terms of a percentage of total amounts fundraised? Thank you for your guidance!

  15. I am on the board for a band booster 501c3 organization and a question came up on how we handle gratuities at events that band holds as part of our fundraising effort. In particular, the events include a Fish Fry at the school gymnasium and the band also operates a facility at a NFL Venue. Presently, tips are received at these events and given directly to the student/adult volunteers and kept to use at their discretion. I see certain issues with this since we are a non profit and am urging that these tips be given back to the organization to either go to specific student accounts or to lower all fees for everyone. What legal issues do I need to consider. If anyone can give me advice on this, I would appreciate it. I cannot find much info about it on the internet.

  16. Are non-profits like The Knights of Columbus and The Post (Vets) considered charitable organizations, booster, or civic clubs?

  17. My daughter participates in a cheer team through her High School that has a booster club. Cheerleaders are required to pay the booster club for camp fees and camp uniforms. If they raise $200 of sponsorship and volunteer ~8 hours a season, the students get a $250 deduction on their camp fees…if they raise more than the $200, they do not get any specific advantage for that.

    Basically, the cost is offset directly by what the kids fundraise (up to $200 for the offset) with the remainder going to the team. However, if a family shows financial hardship, there is a way they can appeal for assistance. The practice of the offset for fundraising to me to be against the IRS directions. Can you clarify this for me?

    There is other fundraising (e.g., snack bar) that helps the entire team, so this isn’t the only fund raising that occurs.

  18. I need to ask a question. We have a non- profit org and the president wants to take all the money and redistribute it back to the athletes. Leaving the account at the minimum of $300.00. It’s not for any purpose except the president and a few board members are leaving and want to give back the money to the ones who fund-raised and not to all of them. I need to know what I need to stop them from doing this and if there is something to back me up with this. I think the money should continue on year after year not redistributed at the end of each year! HELP!

  19. I’m planning on creating a nonprofit organization to receive donations to fund personal development classes for those that cannot afford it. Do you know if I can file a 1023-EZ form? The question: “Do you or will you donate funds to or pay expenses for individual(s)?” confusing me. The nonprofit will pay the expenses of the personal development classes for those individuals that cannot afford them themselves. It will take the contributions and pay the classes on their behalf. The classes are independent training classes and are not part of an accredited university or school system. Do you know if I can still file a 1023-EZ?

  20. Thank you for your comment. Would you agree that the risk would be reduced if there was a stated fee by program and the 501 c 3 had fundraisers and accepted community donations for the “scholarships” that are necessary in order to cover the students/parents that are not able (or willing) to pay the fee? I know that the parents are told that if enough funds are not paid in, the programs will not continue–so I believe that constitutes and expectation that their child is receiving services for their “donation”.

    I assume you have not heard of the IRS classifying Script program revenue as UBIT.

    thank you

  21. I am involved with a high school band booster 501c3 organization. They ask the parents to give a donation. They let the parents know the per student cost of jazz band, marching band and the other programs, and they give a donation letter in return stating that no goods or services were received. No child is denied participation if their parents do not make a donation. Is it in compliance with IRS regulations to have the parents receive a 100% donation when their child is in a program with a benefit that can be reasonably estimated? In the past, they charged fees, but let a child participate even if they could not pay the fee and the general fundraising events/and sales went to pay for those that could not pay the fees. It seems as though the parents are receiving a benefit for their donation. I appreciate your comments. also, one of the general donation programs is escript. i recently heard that the IRS is considering script programs as UBIT–do you have any information on this? thank you

  22. Our booster club was started in 1979, under the school districts tax id. Our district has new auditors that have stated that we MUST close the booster account and deposit the funds into the general activity fund for the school district…and they want it done ASAP. While I realize that using the district’s tax id is not technically legal, would’t applying for our own, which I understand is almost instant, and changing it, be a solution?

  23. Pingback: Student Based Ideas for Photo Fundraising at High School
  24. Can you provide insight on what I need to include in my articles of incorporation to then be used as the organizing documents for 501c3 status?

    We are starting a multisport youth athletic group that will have many teams of various sports. We will do fundraisers that benefit the whole group. We would like to be able to accept donations that are tax deductible for the giver. I believe I need specific wording for:
    a purpose
    something about politics
    and dissolution

    I’m at a loss! IRS forms are so confusing! I’m in Wisconsin if it matters, though I don’t think it does. I’m going to file to be a nonprofit corporation.

  25. We have a parent booster that is a 501 c3 at my daughters cheer gym. My first ? Is, parents do fundraising (working concerts, games etc) and earn $ that gets put into their personal booster account and are using those funds to pay booster fees. Is it ok for individual fundraising to occur that benefits individuals and not the whole group? Second ? If they are allowed to do individual fundraising, can those individuals have booster fundraising funds applies to the for profit gym tuition, and other stuff the for profit gym charges us?

  26. We are forming a 501c(3) booster club for a gymnastics team currently and want to set it up correctly. We were planning on raising funds to cover team costs to compete (leotards, warm-ups, as well as expenses to provide coaches at meets) through sponsorships and asking parents to give a fair share donation. We were not going to make the participating on the team contingent upon parents making the fair share donation. In this case, would the fair share donations made by parents be tax deductible?

    Also, gymnasts will be responsible to cover their own meet fees as not all gymnasts will compete in all meets. Can the club collect these fees and pay them to the meet host without running afoul of our tax exempt status? Thanks for your help.

  27. I’m sorry I am not fully following your answer, maybe I wasn’t clear enough. Thank you, by the way for this forum, it is very helpful information.
    We have a very small gym that is for profit but has a non profit booster club for the team members. Our team makes up 75% of the income coming into the gym. The Booster club would like to purchase a piece of equipment, that we believe will help with the safety in training our kids, for the gym and lease it back to the for profit gym. The question is, do we need to lease it back at full market value or can we pro-rate the cost to reflect the 75-25 split use?

    Thanks again for your expertise and advise.

  28. We are a band booster club operating under the school tax exemption. We have our own bank account that the school does not have anything at all to do with other than the funds being used to help our band. All financial decisions are made by the parent group and band director. Does the IRS allow us to operate under the school umbrella yet still maintain control of the funds?

  29. Thank you for this forum. Very helpful. Is a mandatory fee required by a 501(c)(3) private secondary school to fund improvements to its educational program and campus facilities tax-deductible? Thank you.

  30. Can a 501 3(c) recognized charity purchase ticket to an event such as a fund raising golf tournament done by another 501 3c organization without putting its status at risk?

  31. Hi!

    Our booster club is a 501c3. The gym is a profit gym. The gym is asking the booster club to pay half of the money for new equipment. This equipment would be used not only by the team, but also by rec classes and other teams.

    Are we allowed to give money? After reading everything, my understanding is that we can not give money to the gym for this due to it being a profit gym and it being used by more than just the team.

    Am I correct?

  32. Are fees allowed to be charged to students in a high school band program by the band boosters to cover the cost of the school’s band program? The band boosters is a 501(c)(3) organization. Any student can be part of the band program regardless of the ability to pay the fee, and there is no requirement to fundraise the fee if unable to pay.

  33. My kids cheer team has a booster club, they are a non profit (501c3) I’m not 100% on
    What kind tho I want to say 501c7 because we didn’t have the funds to set to up a 501c3
    Any way, I was wondering since we take money for competition fees and in turn
    Write a check for the coach to register the team for the competitions, could we use say
    Square up to accept those competition fees? So say the comp. Fee is 75.00 and the fee to
    Swipe my card via square up is 2.7%. How would that work legally so the club still gets the full 75$. I mean i can set it up so it adds the 2.7% that square charges to swipe in as a tax, but is it that legal.

  34. We are part of a high school band program that currently has an active booster club which is a 501c3. We are in discussion currently on whether to continue our fundraising efforts through this or to go directly to the school and work our events and fundraising through a school account specifically set up for the band. There is a division between parents, some feeling there are significant benefits and protections from the 501c3 and others feeling that the additional procedures and structure in place make it too cumbersome to work through. They believe there is still sufficient protection through the school and they school can also give tax-deductible receipts for contributions. Would you be able to give your perspective on maintaining our 501c3 versus not? Thank you!

  35. Hello. Our parent association is a 501c3; we are a gymnastics booster club. The board is instituting a new participation policy and budget as follows:
    Only members in “good standing” are eligible to receive financial benefits from fundraisers.
    To be “in good standing” families must volunteer a minimum of 10 hours throughout the course of the year or pay a flat fee of $500. Families who do not reach the 10 hour minimum of volunteering will be billed $25 per half hour at the end of the season.
    With regard to fundraisers the board is considering having all families responsible to sell the same amount of items and if they don’t sell them they would be responsible to purchase them.
    The proposed budget accounts for one major fundraiser and plans for distributing funds from this fundraiser to teams 7 through 9 (numbers represent skill levels), expenses for athletes who qualify for a regional competition (may be none, 1 or more), and some fees associated with the state competition in which all teams participate (skill levels 3 through 9.) Money from any additional fundraisers will be distributed equally to each member family (not team) in good standing. These funds are given to the gym which then applies the money to any outstanding fees or regular tuition. This is done on an individual/family basis.
    Is this proposal compliant with 501c3 rules?

  36. My child participates in a Band where the yearly band fees are $500. Students can earn “points” through participating in fundraising that goes towards their individual student account. One “point” is worth $2.00.

    Example, the Booster Club has a coupon book fundraiser. For each coupon book a student sells for $25.00 the student receives 5 points which equates to $10. the remaining $15 of the book goes towards cost of book and whatever is left goes into the Band Booster general account. A student then can use “points” towards their band fees

    Would this activity be considered a private benefit for students that fund raise?

    All students are not required to fund raise but are strongly encourage to do so.

    Do you think this is in violation of IRS rules and risks the Club’s tax exempt status?

  37. I need clarify my previous post. I meant do Booster Clubs have to file any type of tax form each year with the IRS?

  38. I have a question…. My Daughter & Niece are both in gymnastics at different gyms. They both run booster clubs that have a 501c3. My nieces gym has the following rules for the booster club..

    They work events such as concerts. The “payout” is based on who works the concert. BUT, they payout 10% off to all of the gymnastics girls. Their logic is, they are still contributing to everyone, but the people who work the concerts are getting more of a benefit of the funds than the people who do not work them. Is this legal under a 501c3? Does the “profit” need to be distributed EQUALLY between all the girls? I have found conflicting data..

  39. We are establishing an athletic booster club for our middle school that would benefit all sports. There are no requirements to participate but donations of $50+ allow members to attend school athletic events (normally $4) for free. I’m not sure if we’ll reach the $10,000 threshold that would require us to complete IRS Form 8718 (User Fee for Tax-exempt Organization Determination Letter Request) and pay the required fee of $850 to obtain 501C3 tax exempt status. Any suggestions?

  40. We are thinking of forming a 501c3 booster club for a dance team. I have read that we are able to raise funds for uniforms, competition fees and travel as long as we distribute these funds equally among members and maintain our status. If the dance teachers have already paid out these fees, can we reimburse the dance facility? Or would we have to make payments directly to the competition to be in full compliance?

  41. For a high school football booster club, would paying all or part of coaches’ stipends be considered as net earnings inuring to the benefit of an individual?

  42. Greetings. I have a 501c4 non-profit Rugby Club organization that teaches and promotes rugby in the greater Houston area. We are looking to change our status to a 501c3 for increased donation capabilities but have heard that a 501c3 can not purchase gear. We need gear in the form of training equipment used at practices. Is this a true statement?

  43. my children participate in a youth football and cheer organization that charges a participation fee. after paying that fee, the organization charges a mandatory fundraiser fee and has sent emails stating that if that isnt paid then the children cant participate. isnt this against 5013c rules?

  44. Hello, I am looking into beginning a booster club at a middle school for volleyball so the girls can get the proper equipment to get better. I am sure that the school already has a booster club for basketball but nothing for volleyball. I am trying to figure out how would I go about starting a booster club? Any suggestions or advice would be a wonderful.

  45. We are restarting a booster club that has not really run for the last several years. A former member has evidently been acting as treasurer (she works at a local bank) and writing checks, filing reports, etc. The new teachers realized they needed an active booster club so we are restarting. We found the old bylaws from 2007. My question is, are we legally obligated to follow the old bylaws or can we start from scratch.

  46. My daughter plays on our town travel softball team. The parents were discussing forming a booster club for the benefit of the program. Currently any funds raised are shared with the other programs that use the local PAL facilities since we are using their 501(c)3 status. The funds raised would be used to offset registration costs, uniform costs, equipment, travel to out of state tournaments, end of season awards banquet. Most booster clubs seem to be affiliated with a school. Is it more difficult to form a club that is not connected to a school or other organization?

  47. I am on the Board of a non-profit gymnastics team parents club that has recently filed an application for 501(c)(3) status. I do not believe that our current practices fall in line with what is required to be eligible for tax exempt status. The club requires members (parents) to participate in two fundraisers each season in order to partake in the distribution of funds raised. This would go towards their gymnast’s meet fees. Here is the thinking from someone in our group that believes we can maintain our policy and still be eligible for tax exempt status: In order to partake in the distribution of funds, one must be a member of the club. And in order to maintain membership with the club, one must meet certain requirements, such as participating in two fundraisers per meet season. Would our club still be eligible for tax exempt status with this policy in place? Thank you.

  48. Thanks for answer and info. How does one determine whether a booster club is needing a 501 c 3 status? Our club supports the athletic teams at the high school. The coaches submit requests for needed items such uniforms and supplies. We fundraise for the money through raffles and memberships making about $12-$15k annually.

  49. I was asked to take over as Treasurer of a 501C3 gymnastics booster club over a year ago. It has and had been operating for years without a board, only a Treasurer. The gym advises all team members they must pay a membership fee to the booster club each year. All meet expenses, coach expenses for meets, gymnast banquet, sometimes help for kids who qualify to regionals, is paid for with the funds. Even the owner is a coach and gets paid by booster club for coach expenses at meets, but he is not 1099’d by booster club because he has you write the check to his credit card company or the gym. He advised in writing this is the process. Each gymnast is set up with an individual account. They have to pay the fee first and then the fee amount collected is moved to the general fund. Each gymnast then can either pay costs for their level or fundraise money and keep it in their individual account. If you don’t fundraise your account, you are required to deposit the money into the booster club to your individual account. Cash is allowed to be withdrawn at any time if you donated personal money to your account. Fundraised money can be used to pay your gym registration fee, booster club fee, competition costs, gymnast equipment, hotel costs for meets, mileage, etc. The treasurer calculates the amount due for each meet and then the owners wife sends an email advising how much money you need to have in your account to cover it or the season. Fundraising is put 100% into the individuals account that fundraised it, none of it goes into the general fund unless that gymnast leaves the gym. Personal money is returned. I found out the reason there is no Board is because the gym owner and his wife completely control the booster club and tell the treasurer what to do and reach out to parents to tell them how much money to keep in their accounts or if they are negative, etc. There is nobody to report any issues to because the gym owner and wife control everything or throw your child out of the gym if you do not comply. I guess that is what happened to past members and the initial board years ago. They also have families work home meets and then pay some of them cash and others put the money into that individuals accounts. I’m really concerned about all of this as I have been Treasurer over a year and had no idea of all of these legal issues as I was never told anything other than being asked if I would take over as treasurer. Not sure what to do. Also, most family members do not realize this is an issue or know any part of it because when you join the gym it is explained you need to pay the fee and then everything comes out of your account with the booster club. So, alot of innocent families and there is no general fund balance to cover fines if the IRS steps in.

  50. We are debating if it is necessary to have non profit status. Several factors to consider.
    We were approached about a planned gift from a trust. To receive it, do we need 501 c 3? We have been reporting state non profit but not federal. What steps do we need to take to gain status if we choose to do so?
    If we were to receive a substantial gift, is there a limit that we can take on to maintain. Certain status?
    Sure there will be more to come. Thank you!

  51. So just for clarification, the coach of an Ohio 501(c)(3) softball team, can not place the stipulation on team members that each player must bring in $600 in sponsorship money or they will not receive a portion of their hotel stay paid for during tournament week? My understanding of what is stated above, is all funds collected must be equally disbursed among all players.

Comments are closed.